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مکالمات: قسمت اول

مکالمات: قسمت اول، آغاز بکار. این اولین بار از شش 'گفتگوهای' در نظریه کوانتومی فضا (QST) است. در این قسمت، تاد رابرتز به مرور نظریه کوانتومی فضا، نشان دادن ما چگونه به تجسم ابعاد یازده. هیچ نظریه دیگر (نظریه ابرریسمان، M-تئوری، ابرگرانش، و غیره) قادر به ارائه بشریت مانند یک پنجره زنده به ساختار کامل بعدی از طبیعت بوده است. این رویکرد بصری به ارمغان می آورد و پهنا جدید به تخیل انسانی ارائه می دهد و یک چشم انداز فکری جدید جذاب است که دارای پتانسیل برای تغییر جهان با تغییر راه ما آن را ببینید. توانایی به درک و به طور مستقیم درک ابعاد یازده مجموعه صحنه را برای پاسخ به بزرگترین اسرار فیزیک

نظرات (81)

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  1. Nunya BIZNESS می گوید:

    هیچ یک از آنچه به شما می گویند درست است. من زمان را به رد همه این فیلم، اما اجازه دهید این موضوع:

    نسبیت عام است "اشتباه" نیست، به این معنا که شما ادعا می کنند. این اشتباه به این معنا که یک نظریه دقیق تر خواهد یک روز آمده است همراه است. اما آن را تا حد تئوری دقیق ترین جاذبه که تا به حال مطرح شده است.

    من برای شما چگونه کار می کند توضیح دهد، چرا شما به وضوح درک نمی کنند.

    نسبیت عام (GR) میدارد که در آن نسبیت خاص برگ؛ یعنی: این ایده که فضا و زمان هستند یک نهاد جدایی ناپذیر به نام فضا-زمان. یک سوال واضح است، "چه هندسه است." شما ممکن است فرض کنیم که فضا-زمان اقلیدسی است. شما اشتباه خواهد بود.

    شالوده پایه ریاضی از GR هندسه دیفرانسیل است که استفاده از حساب دیفرانسیل و انتگرال چند بعدی برای اشیاء هندسی است. از طریق هندسه دیفرانسیل، تمام مفاهیم هندسه فضایی را می توان از یک شی ریاضی نتیجه گرفت، شناخته شده به عنوان متریک. متریک یک تانسور است که می تواند مورد استفاده برای محاسبه فاصله بین دو نقطه در فضا است. بنابراین متریک به طور کامل توصیف هندسه فضا. متریک اقلیدسی برای N-فضای یک ماتریس NXN مدخل همه صفر، به جز قطر، که در آن نوشته تمام 1. اگر شما استفاده از این برای تولید فاصله بین دو نقطه در فضا است، به شما خواهد شد بازگشت آشنا فیثاغورس قضیه: A ^ 2 + B ^ 2 = C ^ 2 (توجه داشته باشید که این نسخه 2 بعدی از قضیه است؛ می توان آن را در راهی مشخص برای هر بعد از فضای اقلیدسی عمومی).

    فضا-زمان است، به تقریب بسیار خوب است، اقلیدسی. اما می شود دقیق تر، این طور نیست. این می شود به خصوص در فواصل بسیار بزرگ آشکار، در سرعت های بسیار بزرگ، و یا در میدانهای گرانشی بسیار بالا است. متریک فضا-زمان یکسان به متریک اقلیدسی است، با این تفاوت که از ورود مورب در ستون برای زمان تا به علامت مخالف از بقیه از نوشته های مورب.

    اثر این چیست؟ خوب، یک قضیه آشنا از هندسه اقلیدسی است که کوتاه ترین فاصله بین دو نقطه یک خط راست است. در فضا-زمان، این طوری نیست. با توجه به نتایج اولیه از نسبیت خاص که من نمی خواهد اینجا گرفته شده (خواندن هر کتاب درسی نسبیت خاص کارشناسی)، مقدار زمان اندازه گیری شده توسط یک ناظر وابسته به مسیر او را از طریق فضا-زمان سفر است. این است که به نام زمان مناسب. با توجه به ماهیت غیر اقلیدسی از فضا-زمان، کوتاه ترین فاصله بین دو نقطه است که در واقع که به حداقل می رساند زمان مناسب. به عبارت دیگر، زیپ کردن لبه کهکشان با سرعت نور و سپس بازگشت به زمان کمتری را برای شما در کشتی فضایی خود را از آن را برای من به صبر در حالی که شما در سفر خود به نیاز. این پارادوکس معروف دوقلو است.

    به هر حال، نتیجه این است که، در اصل تغییرات (که باید برای شما آشنا باشد اگر شما شده است به مکانیک لاگرانژی، که من شک شما را ندارد ... در معرض)، اشیاء در فضا-زمان تمایل دارند که با مسیر سفر که زمان مناسب خود را به حداقل می رساند. همانطور که قبلا ذکر شد، زمان مناسب است سفر با سرعت بالا کوتاه، یا بودن در میدان گرانشی است.

    را در حال حاضر، به عنوان مثال، یک سیب بر روی یک درخت. سیب سعی خواهد کرد برای به حداقل رساندن زمان مناسب آن است. یعنی، زمین - آن را به این با حرکت به سوی یک میدان گرانشی است. این نتایج در یک نیروی جاذبه بین اپل و این سیاره است. به عبارت دیگر، در آینده از نقاط worldlike اپل به سمت مرکز زمین است.

    این است که چگونه گرانش کار می کند، به طور خلاصه. این واقعیت که شما این را نمی دانند برطرف بی کفایتی خود را به تلاش برای کار در این زمینه. اما زمان خود را به هدر آن است، من حدس می زنم ...

    • ژئو می گوید:

      بنابراین، اجازه دهید من این راست ... سیب سعی خواهد کرد با حرکت به سمت یک میدان گرانشی به حداقل رساندن زمان مناسب آن و این چیزی است که گرانش است (به مفهوم وجودشناختی). چرا اپل سعی برای به حداقل رساندن زمان مناسب آن؟ یک میدان گرانشی چیست؟ گرانش چیست؟ نظر شما واقعا پاسخ هر یک از این سوالات و یا حتی کمک کرد روشن است. همه شما انجام داده اند تصریح یک میدان سحر و جادو که سیب جذب می کند.

      • srivastava از چاندان می گوید:

        کوتاه ترین distence می تواند اندازه گیری با استفاده از حساب از تنوع است.

        • تاد رابرتز می گوید:

          شما درست می گویند که کوتاه ترین فاصله را می توان با استفاده از یک حساب تنوع اندازه گیری هستند، تا زمانی که متریک ما صحبت در مورد صاف و متصل است. در یک متریک کوانتیزه موضوع می تواند کمی پیچیده تر است.

          • پیر روسو می گوید:

            تاد رابرتز - "در یک متریک کوانتیزه موضوع می تواند کمی پیچیده تر است.".

            به همین دلیل است یک عارضه بیشتر در مورد دانه دانه کوانتومی به عنوان آن را به تمام اشیاء اعمال می شود. همه اشیاء ادراک هستند، از جمله مفاهیم. همه واقعیت وجودی (آگاهی) پدیدارشناختی یا روایت است. خطا است فقط مفهوم فراطبیعی است. آن را حتی شدیدتر perceptualization از supernarrative است. به عبارت دیگر، اشارات از خدایان عرفانی و نیایش روح افراد به عنوان اشیاء ارادی گسسته در ساخت متقابل ایستاده است.

            همانطور که برای حساب دیفرانسیل. این بیش از حد کند شروع به مطرح ماده از وجود. این یکی دیگر از چین و چروک روایت اما سرگرم کننده است.

      • پیتر مارتین می گوید:

        "گرانش چیست؟" "چه شده است یک میدان گرانشی؟" این شبه هستند "است" سوال که، طبیعت خود هرگز نمی تواند پاسخ داده شود.

        شما ممکن است لذت بردن از خواندن در مورد انجمن Ganeral معناشناسی به رهبری آلفرد Korzybski، که اظهارات و سوال که (یا فقط) فعل اصلی شکلی از "به" است اجتناب.

    • جان گفت:

      به Nunya: همه چیز به شما گفت همه به خوبی و خوب است، اما شما یک چیز را توضیح نمی دهد: آنچه یک میدان گرانشی است. نسبیت عام اثرات گرانش را توضیح می دهد، اما آن را هنوز هم واقعا توضیح که چه گرانش است. او در این ویدئو می گوید، ما تا به حال به فرض کرد که گرانش یک نیروی است. اما اگر در آن است، چرا از آن بسیار فوق العاده ضعیف در مقایسه با نیروهای دیگر؟ نسبیت نظریه بزرگ برای چیزهای بزرگ است، اما آن را توضیح می دهد هیچ چیز در مقیاس زیراتمی. حداقل این نظریه همان قوانین برای کل جهان در هر مقیاس می دهد. و آن را می دهد توضیح زیادی از چه زمانی است.

  2. Nunya BIZNESS می گوید:

    این اصل اینرسی است: یک شی در یک خط مستقیم حرکت خواهد شد مگر اینکه بر یک نیروی عمل کرده است. تعریف یک "خط راست" در راه است که به حداقل می رساند فاصله است.

    چیستان از GR است که فضای هموار و تخت نیست، و این که گرانش مظهر فضا زمان تاب است. که تاب باعث خطوط مستقیم (کسانی که حداقل رساندن زمان مناسب) به گاز و قوس الکتریکی به سمت قطعه از جرم - به عبارت دیگر، اشیاء دیگری را جذب کند.

    نسبیت عام یک نظریه بسیار پیچیده است. مسخره مختصر تصادف مقدمه ای بر آن چه را که نوشته ام است. به جای تنها بودن شک و تردید در مورد همه چیز و اینکه آن را از دست، چرا که نه در واقع یک کتاب درسی در نسبیت عنوان خوانده شده؟ آن را سخت به ادعا می کنند که شما نسبیت رد میشم بدون حتی درک آن برای اولین بار ...

    • ژئو می گوید:

      اول از همه، من (و من تاد، بنابراین من برای او صحبت نمی) شک و تردید از GR نیست. خود را به عنوان آنجا که هر می توانید تئوری ثابت کرده است. در واقع، من فکر می کنم، در کنار نظریه اتمی یونان باستان، آن را مهم ترین نظری (فیزیک) نوع بشر دستیابی به موفقیت تا به حال ساخته شده است. که گفت، من فکر نمی کنم آن کامل است، و نه خود انیشتین. چه من فکر نمی کنم شما را در درک این است که QST یک فرمت به گرم. آن را در بسیاری است، کوانتیزه GR (از مستمر به یک سیستم گسسته). به نظر میرسد شما فکر می کنم که ما در حال سطل زباله GR. ما نیستیم. تاد بود کتاب خود "شهود انیشتین" نام نیست از وجود، بلکه از احترام. اگر شما برای گوش دادن به آنچه که در فیلم گفته شد ناراحت بود شما را به دست آورد که خودتان.

      در مرحله دوم، QST فرض ایده بسیار مشابه، که گرانش مظهر فضا-زمان تاب است. اما QST می دهد ساز و بتن که تاب. جاذبه است، به معنای واقعی کلمه، یک تغییر در چگالی فضایی (یک شیب تراکم). من فکر نمی کنم این می اندازد GR پنجره به بیرون. در عوض، آن را بر شانه بزرگ از هر دو اینشتین و تئوری های خود را است.

      اگر شما می خواهم به یک بحرانی، گفتگوی سازنده در این مورد، تاد و من بیش از تمایل به انجام این کار می باشد. خصومت و نادرست QST خود را، با این حال از علاقه ما نیست.

      به سلامتي،

      جف (مدیر سایت مدیر سایت)

      • Nunya BIZNESS می گوید:

        نکته من این است که شما در حال ضربه GR است. این که شما سوء تفاهم آن، و به تبع آن نتیجه گیری شما را جلب نادرست هستند.

        به عنوان مثال، تاد می گوید در این ویدئو که معمولا دیده می شود "ترامپلاین" نمودار GR نادرست است، زیرا از آن غافل یک محور فضا، و که ما به نحوی نیاز به ابعاد بیشتری از فضا به "کش به" برای GR به کار است. البته که نمودار اشتباه است - آن را فقط یک استعاره. این تنها مورد استفاده برای معرفی مفهوم به مردم عوام که، قابل درک است، یک زمان سخت دست و پنجه نرم با شبه ریمانی منیفولد 4 بعدی. به فکر می کنم که که مدل ساده کپسوله نظریه اشتباه است. فضا می تواند بدون تاب به دیگر ابعاد پیچ ​​و تاب.

        مسائل دیگر بی حد و حصر که با ریاضیات و فیزیک ایجاد مربع نیست، مانند این ایده که PI نشان دهنده یک مقدار انحنای (و این حداقل مقدار انحنای است) وجود دارد. پی یک نسبت است. خمش توسط مشتقات جزئی جهت اندازه گیری شد.

        من به شما گفتن به متوقف کردن آنچه شما انجام می دهند. من به شما گفتن، به عنوان کسی که در ریاضی و فیزیک آموزش دیده، که اگر شما علاقه مند به این چیزها هستید، شما را در مسیر اشتباه است، و آن است که قصد ندارم به شما را در هر نقطه معنی دار است. من عذر خواهی اگر که سخت است، اما تفاوت بین درست و نادرست بسیار تیز است. همین دلیل است که من به شما التماس و تاد به مطالعه فیزیک تاسیس مانند نسبیت در عمق (به عنوان مثال، ریاضی) قبل از تلاش برای بهبود بر آنها.

        • ژئو می گوید:

          من قدر آنچه را که شما می گویید. من یک ریاضیدان یا فیزیکدان، بلکه یک علاقه مند (و احتمالا بیش از تحصیل) فرد غیر روحانی. با این حال، چند ریاضیدانان و فیزیکدانان نظری کار بر روی به طور رسمی از QST در حال حاضر با تاد وجود دارد. به نظر می رسد فکر می کنم که چیزی است که به آن وجود دارد. این افراد با نظریه و ریاضیات شما را از در نظر شما صحبت می کنند آشنا هستند. آنها بیش از خواندن متون مقدماتی نشان می دهد شما انجام داده اند. نه یک متخصص باید به آنها تسلیم. که گفت، هیچ یک از آنها دست خود را تا پرتاب کرده اند و به دور پس از ماه ها کار می رفت، بلکه آنها بیشتر متقاعد شده اند. آنها هنوز هم احساس چیزی است که به علمی توسط تلاش های خود را به دست آورد وجود دارد.

          از نقطه نظر غیر از این دیدگاه، پیشنهادات QST (به من حداقل) یک توضیح برای یک میزبان از پدیده های متفاوت (هر دو ماکروسکوپی و میکروسکوپی) که مقاومت در برابر توضیح به این روز است. یکی از نقاط تاد است که یک نظریه که توضیح فراهم نیست، خیلی از تئوری نیست (که می تواند یک ضربت با چیز تیز در تفسیر استاندارد از مکانیک کوانتومی است که آن را غنی سزاوار). من می دانم که تا زمانی که به طور رسمی کامل کامل است بسیاری از جامعه علمی را نمی خواهد QST به زمان از روز (و بسیاری حتی نمی خواهد که به طور رسمی کامل است). اما در این نقطه، نظریه است که هنوز هم قابل آزمون در آزمایشگاه از منطق است. پیدا کردن یک گسل با منطق آن، محل آن، نتیجه گیری آن است. این جایی است که ما در حال حاضر. تا کنون، به دانش من، هیچ کس هر یک از این خلاصه نظری QST رد کرده است.

          بدیهی است که هنوز هم وجود دارد کار زیادی برای انجام، اما من معتقدم (بله این یک عقیده است) که یک پایه محکم در حال حاضر ساخته شده است. همانطور که می گویند، شیطان در جزئیات، و این جزئیات در حال کار می کرد. مقالات نوشته شده است. همسالان بررسی خواهد شد.

          من می خواهم شما را دعوت به خواندن کل کتاب (که ما می توانید از طریق PDF ارسال اگر شما می خواهم).

        • جان گفت:

          Nunya، که در آن شما مرد بوده است؟ همه از فیزیک جدید و پیشگامانه در حال انجام است فرض که ابعاد اضافی فضایی وجود دارد. اگر شما بنابراین مطمئن شوید که GR است می شود همه در پایان همه، پس از تونل زنی کوانتومی را توضیح دهد. توضیح اصل عدم قطعیت. او می تواند آن را لمس کنید. اینشتین خود اعتقاد نداشت که سیاه چاله ها واقعا وجود داشته است. ما در حال حاضر اثبات این که در همه جا میلیون ها نفر وجود دارد. GR کاملا تجزیه می در مرکز یک سیاه چاله. ما نمی توانیم رفتن به جلو اگر ما مایل به سرگرم احتمال ابعاد اضافی نیست. با این برنامه است.

        • G-پیچ و مهره می گوید:

          شما توضیحات ریاضی نیروهای توصیف کرد. شما توضیح داد که چگونه آنها بدون هیچ گونه اطلاع به همین دلیل رفتار می کنند.

          مدل فضای تاب مدل یک شخص غیر روحانی است، شما می توانید آن را به عنوان این فرض که فضا را می توان به شیوه ای که ما نمی تواند درک منحنی را قبول اطلاق می شود.

          مشکل این است که با تعریف برای چیزی به منحنی (یا به تغییر خواص، تفاوت وجود دارد) به شیوه ای است که غیر قابل مشاهده برای ما آن را در یکی دیگر از ابعاد در حال حرکت. تغییر هر گونه اموال در حال تغییر است یک بعد.

          تصور آن ابعاد در نظر فیزیکی فقط باعث می شود فعل و انفعالات خود را برای درک ساده تر و یا حداقل اعطا یک دیدگاه تازه.

  3. جان می گوید:

    من فکر می کنم (Nunya BIZNESS) به طور کامل از دست رفته در اینجا پیام. شما به نظر شما استقبال می شود، اما پس از خواندن بیش از نظرات خود را به نظر من که شما ادعا می کند از نظریه کوانتومی فضا اشتباه کرده اند. من می دانم که فرمول هنوز کامل نشده، اما اصول بنیادی انجام هماهنگی

    من علاقه مند به ادعای خود را که هستم "فضا می تواند بدون تاب به دیگر ابعاد پیچ ​​و تاب."

    هیچ زمینه قابل توجهی برای این ادعا را پیدا کنم. بگذار توضیح بدهم. می گویند که فضای بدون تاب می توانید به دیگر ابعاد پیچ ​​و تاب است که می گویند که شما یک مکانیزم، توضیح، برای چه ممکن است پیچ و تاب فضای - صرفا شرح برای فضای اطراف اجسام بزرگ پیچاند. در حالی که این ممکن است تبدیل باشد که راه های دیگری برای فضای به پیچ و تاب (به غیر از تاب برداشتن به ابعاد دیگر) وجود دارد، این ادعا را نمی توان اثبات تا برخی از به عنوان مثال مطرح شده است. شما به سادگی نمی توان گفت، نگاه کنید، فضای تاب است چرا که ما فضای داده ام متریک است که به آن کیفیت که پیچاند. اختراع یک نماینده از کیفیت کاملا متفاوت از توضیح داد که با کیفیت است. همانطور که می ایستد در حال حاضر (در کتابهای درسی مدرن) است مفهوم از "فضای تاب" غیر قابل دسترس است. البته شما می توانید ریاضی برای نمایندگی آن استفاده کنید، آن را تقلید، آن را کپی کنید، و یا هر، اما ریاضی لزوما به این معنی نیست که شما باید یک توضیح برای منشاء آن است. دقیقا چگونه پیچ و تاب فضا-زمان بدون تاب به بعد (بازدید کنندگان) دیگر؟ این پرسش اساسی در دست است. نظریه کوانتومی می گوید که فضای آن را نمی تواند، اما آن را فضازمان تاب را هل داد از تصویر، به جای آن روشن چگونه پیچ و تاب می آید در مورد - دفاع اینشتین در راه است که بسیار او را لطفا.

    من را خوانده ام بسیار کمی بیشتر از کتاب های درسی شما صحبت می کنند. I have taken the classes (both in math and physics) and then gone further. If you have done the same then I'm sure you'll agree that in those books they simply get people to swallow “guts, feathers, and all” the idea that we can invent a field out of nowhere as long as that field yields results that match observation. The gravitational field is assumed to give space some additional characteristic which is mappable by a tensor. The problem is, and always has been, that the simple invention of this field does not give us an explanation for how that field entangles with spacetime, what causes it to come into existence, or what it really is. It is just taken as brute that it exists in association with mass, without any necessary reason. The logic here needs a bit of improvement. It also needs a little more honesty. Einstein was well aware of this (finding this explanation was the project that occupied his last 30 years). While it is true that if you just swallow the existence of this field you will agree that straight paths becomes the paths of orbits, but quantum space theory is not contesting this – it is attempting to explain it. The theory is simply asking a different, more fundamental question than you are giving it credit for. It is asking why and how this warp occurs?

    Scientists ought not to be looking merely for an association, we ought to be looking for a causal connection, an explanation. There is quite a significant difference between associations and explanation, quite a significant difference between having a mathematical representation of a system and a complete metaphysical explanation for that system. That's why I, and a growing number of scientists, are interested in this and, at least in my case, are devoting a little time each week to developing it.

    • Nunya Bizness says:

      “I know the formulation is not yet complete, but the foundational principles do have coherence.”

      They do not. For example: the picture that Thad uses in the above video, with the “bubbles” bouncing about is not 11 dimensional at all. It is three dimensional. The “bubbles” are moving in three dimensions, and Thad claims that there are three dimensions inside the bubble. There is nothing separating the inside and the outside of the bubble other than the bubble's wall, so there is no reason to regard them as separate realms.

      All the dimensions of a given space are perpendicular to one another (this is a very well-known result of linear algebra). If you want to imagine 11-dimensional space, you have to imagine 11 lines that are all perpendicular to one another. You can't. Neither can I. It's impossible, and our failure to picture it has absolutely nothing to do with physics.

      “I am interested in your claim that “space can warp without warping into another dimension.”
      I find no substantial grounds for this claim.”

      This is not a claim. It's a mathematical truth that is extremely obvious, even in real life. Take, for example, a rubber band. Imagine you live on the surface of that band. If I stretch it, you will witness the space around you warping. The distance between you and nearby objects will increase. This is similar to what happens in spacetime. Dimensions stretch in their own direction.

      “Let me explain. To say that space can warp without warping into other dimensions is to say that you have a mechanism, an explanation, for how space might warp – not merely a description for how space is warped around massive objects.”

      No. This does not follow logically. To say that space can warp without needing other dimensions is a statement that stands on its own. It is a geometrical statement. The essence of that statement, mathematically, is that dimensions are linearly independent. It says nothing about a “mechanism.”

      At any rate, GR does posit a “mechanism.” Namely, matter warps spacetime. Period. Look at the Einstein Field Equation. Literally, stress-energy = spacetime curvature. Perhaps there is a deeper explanation. And that will be an object of study of the next theory of gravity. But the simple fact is, GR makes sense, it has been extremely(!) vilified by experiment, and it provides an enlightening view of gravity (the warping of spacetime).

      “the very meaning of “warped space” is inaccessible”

      A problem that QST advocates seem to have is that they think all of physics should be reducible to simple “pictures” that any layman can understand. It would be nice if that were possible, but it's not. Physics (especially at the level QST tries to function) is extremely complex, and there's no way of getting around that. That's why people like Einstein are regarded as geniuses; not just any schmuck can understand it. So, in order to help more people understand, scientists frequently simplify and quash their theories into very basic ideas and metaphors (like the trampoline model of relativity). The problem is, many people will mistake this metaphor for the actual theory. They'll notice that the model is flawed, and suddenly they think they've made the discovery of the century. But the model is designed to be flawed; those flaws allow the model to be simple enough to understand.

      “Exactly how does spacetime warp without warping into another dimension(s)? That's the central question at hand. Quantum space theory says that it can't, but it doesn't push warped spacetime out of the picture, instead it clarifies how the warp comes about – vindicating Einstein in a way that would very much please him.”

      First of all, you cannot speak for Einstein; he is long dead. Second, if QST claims that spacetime requires additional dimensions in order to be warped, then QST breaks Relativity. پایان داستان. Relativity depends fundamentally on the fact that spacetime can do this. And GR is mostly correct. So if any theory violates this idea (or any other that invalidates GR entirely) that theory must be false. There's no two ways about it.

      “you'll agree that in those books they simply get people to swallow “guts, feathers, and all” the idea that we can invent a field out of nowhere as long as that field yields results that match observation.”

      There is a philosophical issue here. You are correct to say that there is a difference between predicting a phenomenon and actually explaining it. A good theory must do both. But you must understand two things: 1) science is a process. The original theory of gravity (Newton's) offered no explanation at all. But it was excellent at predicting. Relativity improved the prediction, and offered an explanation (curved geometry). You may complain that the explanation does not go far enough, but that does not mean it is not an explanation. The next theory of gravity will surely hold more insight. And 2), the explanations given by a theory are not always simple. Einstein *did* explain gravity, at least to an extent. But that explanation (when given in full) requires the use of 4 dimensions – something we're not used to. The only way to make it seem simple is to strip away some of the complexity, and speak metaphorically about a bowling ball on a trampoline.

      “The gravitational field is assumed to give space some additional characteristic which is mappable by a tensor. The problem is, and always has been, that the simple invention of this field does not give us an explanation for how that field entangles with spacetime, what causes it to come into existence, or what it really is.”

      Most of this doesn't even make sense. Gravity doesn't entangle with spacetime; it does not give spacetime some weird characteristic. Gravity is the curvature of space, no more, no less. It can be regarded as a field, which Newton did; but Relativity says it is geometry, and it is much more accurate. Relativity says that this curvature is caused by mass. If there is anything deeper going on here (which there may not be!), some future theory will uncover it.

      The larger issue here is the meaning of existence. The way science works is by postulating a theory of a phenomenon; an explanation. That explanation must be good enough to give a prediction (in modern times this means math). The given explanation may postulate the existence of things beyond what is presently observed (or is possible to observe). If the theory is coherent, gives accurate predictions, and is as simple as possible (Occam's Razor), it may be regarded on some level as being true.

      For the example of the gravitational field, Relativity: gravity is curvature of spacetime. This is calculated with the Ricci tensor, and highly accurate predictions are made. Virtually every prediction of GR has been verified to experimental limit – and this includes, most importantly, the direct measurement of spacetime curvature!

      On the other hand, QST: self-contradictory and incoherent explanation of various phenomena. No mathematical predictions at all. (Pi is not a measurement of curvature!) No experimental predictions, no experimental tests. It fails on every count. هیچ چیز در اینجا وجود دارد.

      • ژئو می گوید:

        I'll respond to each section individually (if I'm missing something, John, please comment yourself):

        “I know the formultion is not yet complete, but the foundational principles do have coherence.”

        They do not. For example: the picture that Thad uses in the above video, with the “bubbles” bouncing about is not 11 dimensional at all. It is three dimensional. The “bubbles” are moving in three dimensions, and Thad claims that there are three dimensions inside the bubble. There is nothing separating the inside and the outside of the bubble other than the bubble's wall, so there is no reason to regard them as separate realms.

        If you take the original axiom seriously then this picture does represent 9 dimensions of space. Quantization institutes the very restriction that you are ignoring, so your complaint begs the question.

        All the dimensions of a given space are perpendicular to one another (this is a very well-known result of linear algebra). If you want to imagine 11-dimensional space, you have to imagine 11 lines that are all perpendicular to one another. You can't. Neither can I. It's impossible, and our failure to picture it has absolutely nothing to do with physics.

        Technically, “perpendicular” is an oversimplification used in elementary geometry. The correct term is orthogonal. Two elements of an inner product space fit the definition of orthogonal if their inner product is zero. Two subspaces can be called independent dimensions if they are orthogonal, and they are orthogonal if every element of one is orthogonal to every element of the other. To put it simply, if motion in one does not entail motion in the other then they are orthogonal subspaces. Your assertion that it is impossible to imagine more than 3 space dimensions is something that we definitely disagree on. You are entitled to remain with your current opinion. (Thanks to my mathematician friend for help here…)

        “I am interested in your claim that “space can warp without warping into another dimension.” I find no substantial grounds for this claim.”

        This is not a claim. It's a mathematical truth that is extremely obvious, even in real life. Take, for example, a rubber band. Imagine you live on the surface of that band. If I stretch it, you will witness the space around you warping. The distance between you and nearby objects will increase. This is similar to what happens in spacetime. Dimensions stretch in their own direction.

        Ok, let's take your example seriously. Imagine that we all live on the surface of a that band, except for you of course because you are stretching it. As you stretch it and we observe the rest of the universe that we are aware of, which is also contained by the band, what will we see? هیچ چی. Exactly nothing. We are stretching in exact proportion with the rest of the universe so everything appears to be identical at all points to us whether or not you stretch it. The only way out of this conclusion is to imagine that you, as the observer, somehow live outside of the space that is stretching instead of being within it. At any rate, you haven't addressed the concern.

        “Let me explain. To say that space can warp without warping into other dimensions is to say that you have a mechanism, an explanation, for how space might warp – not merely a description for how space is warped around massive objects.”

        No. This does not follow logically. To say that space can warp without needing other dimensions is a statement that stands on its own. It is a geometrical statement. The essence of that statement, mathematically, is that dimensions are linearly independent. It says nothing about a “mechanism.”

        Linearly independent makes no play here. All dimensions, by definition, are orthogonal whether or not curvature is a part of the description. You say that “it can warp without needing other dimensions” then simply explain how. You are asserting that it is possible, that there is some way for this to occur, that it is at least feasible, so provide something to validates this.

        At any rate, GR does posit a “mechanism.” Namely, matter warps spacetime. Period. Look at the Einstein Field Equation. Literally, stress-energy = spacetime curvature. Perhaps there is a deeper explanation. And that will be an object of study of the next theory of gravity. But the simple fact is, GR makes sense, it has been extremely(!) vilified [sic] by experiment, and it provides an enlightening view of gravity (the warping of spacetime).

        This is a study of the next theory of gravity. What do you think we've been talking about all of this time? Of course general relativity makes sense! It's almost correct too. Of course it has been extremely verified by experiment. Nowhere have we ever contested this. In fact, our interest in general relativity and developing a way to make it account for the effects of quantum mechanics has been the motivation all along. I don't know how you got the idea that QST is pitted against general relativity. It simply isn't the case. We are on the quest to vindicate general relativity the rest of the way, to find its fundamental ontological explanation and to show how the geometry that gives rise to the beautiful effects of general relativity can also be linked to the effects of quantum mechanics.

        “the very meaning of “warped space” is inaccessible”

        A problem that QST advocates seem to have is that they think all of physics should be reducible to simple “pictures” that any layman can understand. It would be nice if that were possible, but it's not. Physics (especially at the level QST tries to function) is extremely complex, and there's no way of getting around that. That's why people like Einstein are regarded as geniuses; not just any schmuck can understand it. So, in order to help more people understand, scientists frequently simplify and quash their theories into very basic ideas and metaphors (like the trampoline model of relativity). The problem is, many people will mistake this metaphor for the actual theory. They'll notice that the model is flawed, and suddenly they think they've made the discovery of the century. But the model is designed to be flawed; those flaws allow the model to be simple enough to understand.

        You will have to allow all of us QST advocates to firmly disagree with you here. We continue to support Einstein on this one.

        “It should be possible to explain the laws of physics to a barmaid.” – Albert Einstein

        “Exactly how does space time warp without warping into another dimension(s)? That's the central question at hand. Quantum space theory says that it can't, but it doesn't push warped space time out of the picture, instead it clarifies how the warp comes about – vindicating Einstein in a way that would very much please him.”

        First of all, you cannot speak for Einstein; he is long dead. Second, if QST claims that spacetime requires additional dimensions in order to be warped, then QST breaks Relativity. پایان داستان. Relativity depends fundamentally on the fact that spacetime can do this. And GR is mostly correct. So if any theory violates this idea (or any other that invalidates GR entirely) that theory must be false. There's no two ways about it.

        Of course QST breaks with relativity, but only on the microscopic scale, where every future theory of gravity must break with it if it has any hope of being right. General relativity IS mostly correct. Why are you still trying to comment on this as if we disagree? Any complete theory of gravity must disagree with general relativity on the small scales and agree with is on the large scales. به همین سادگی. Einstein knew this, no way around it, so I'm not sure how your complaint is supposed to be directed.

        “you'll agree that in those books they simply get people to swallow “guts, feathers, and all” the idea that we can invent a field out of nowhere as long as that field yields results that match observation.”

        There is a philosophical issue here. You are correct to say that there is a difference between predicting a phenomenon and actually explaining it. A good theory must do both. But you must understand two things: 1) science is a process. The original theory of gravity (Newton's) offered no explanation at all. But it was excellent at predicting. Relativity improved the prediction, and offered an explanation (curved geometry).

        We could not agree more.

        You may complain that the explanation does not go far enough, but that does not mean it is not an explanation. The next theory of gravity will surely hold more insight.

        And exactly what do you think we are doing here. This is our point. This is why we are working on this.

        And 2), the explanations given by a theory are not always simple.

        حق با شماست. They are only simple when they are complete and correct.

        Einstein *did* explain gravity, at least to an extent. But that explanation (when given in full) requires the use of 4 dimensions – something we're not used to. The only way to make it seem simple is to strip away some of the complexity, and speak metaphorically about a bowling ball on a trampoline.

        Seeing it for what it is instead of only partially explaining it can make it simple too. Of course the trampoline is only intended as a metaphor. Of course Einstein would have gone with something better if he had succeeded in finding it. Are you trying to argue that because Einstein is dead no one should continue pushing for a more complete explanation?

        “The gravitational field is assumed to give space some additional characteristic which is mappable by a tensor. The problem is, and always has been, that the simple invention of this field does not give us an explanation for how that field entangles with spacetime, what causes it to come into existence, or what it really is.”

        Most of this doesn't even make sense. Gravity doesn't entangle with spacetime; it does not give spacetime some weird characteristic.

        Curvature is a characteristic.

        Gravity is the curvature of space, no more, no less. It can be regarded as a field, which Newton did; but Relativity says it is geometry, and it is much more accurate. Relativity says that this curvature is caused by mass. If there is anything deeper going on here (which there may not be!), some future theory will uncover it.

        The larger issue here is the meaning of existence. The way science works is by postulating a theory of a phenomenon; an explanation. That explanation must be good enough to give a prediction (in modern times this means math). The given explanation may postulate the existence of things beyond what is presently observed (or is possible to observe). If the theory is coherent, gives accurate predictions, and is as simple as possible (Occam's Razor), it may be regarded on some level as being true.

        دقیقا. Feel free to direct yourself to the general predictions that stem from this geometry. If your attack is that there are no “exact” predictions yet, due to the fact that we haven't finished the full mathematical formulation of the geometry, then you hardly have any business telling us to stop working on the math of the theory.

        For the example of the gravitational field, Relativity: gravity is curvature of spacetime. This is calculated with the Ricci tensor, and highly accurate predictions are made. Virtually every prediction of GR has been verified to experimental limit – and this includes, most importantly, the direct measurement of spacetime curvature!

        Of course it has. It is abundantly clear that you are entirely confused about the claims and goals of this new theory. You are determined to pit it against general relativity instead of seeing it as an ontological validation and supporter of general relativity.

        On the other hand, QST: self-contradictory and incoherent explanation of various phenomena. No mathematical predictions at all. (Pi is not a measurement of curvature!) No experimental predictions, no experimental tests. It fails on every count. هیچ چیز در اینجا وجود دارد.

        Yes, pi can easily be used as a measurement of curvature. Go back and check your math. The ratio of a circle's circumference to its diameter will change when you put it in a space with the Ricci tensor. Uninformed assertions are not questions. If you have questions feel free to ask. If your agenda is simply to push your conviction that a theory that you won't hear out must be wrong, because you've already decided before reading it that it conflicts with general relativity in a way that it shouldn't, then this is really not the place for those kinds of rants.

        Thanks for you questions. We shall continue our calculations and work (despite your suggestion that an already complete mathematical formulation is the only kind anyone should work on).

      • جیم می گوید:

        If dimensions stretch in their own direction, how would one know they stretched?

        • تاد رابرتز می گوید:

          I'm not sure it means much to say that a dimension stretches in its own direction. To define “stretching” in a meaningful way we need to reference a property that changes in reference to another dimension. If you are pointing out that if the universe of x, y, z space has been stretching/expanding, in the way often visually modeled on a balloon to explain the redshift we measure and connect to dark energy, then you are right to point out that this popular model actually doesn't provide a coherent explanation of stretching. If, on the other hand, one region of space “stretched” more or less than another, it would leave geometric distortions (curvature) that could be detected.

  4. Me says:

    Rather than writing a lengthy response, allow me to just point out a number of falsehoods I have seen involved with QST, and ask how they are to be resolved.

    Pi represents the smallest amount of curvature possible in spacetime. (Russian character) represents the greatest amount.

    QST is 11 dimensions even though real space is 3 dimensions, the inside of the “bubbles” is 3 dimensions, and the space the “bubbles” move through is 3 dimensions, and there is nothing separating those regions from one another.

    یک کوانتوم از چیزی کوچکترین واحد احتمالی که آن چیز است. یک کوانتوم از فضای یک "حباب" که فراتر از آن است هیچ تعریف از فضا وجود دارد است. با این حال، فضای داخل حباب وجود دارد، به نحوی.

    جاذبه به عنوان شیب چگالی کوانتوم فضای ارائه شده است. اما گرانش به وسیله ماده ایجاد می شود. ماده فضای است. چگونه این حتی حس؟

    زمان resonation کوانتوم فضا است. واسه چی؟ چگونه؟ چه استدلال منجر به این نتیجه گیری؟

    اگر 11 بعد وجود دارد، چرا ما نمی توانیم آنها را ببینید؟ نظریه ریسمان می گوید آنهایی که اضافی فر بسیار کوچک است. QST به نظر می رسد ابعاد اضافی فقط از نوع ... شناور خارج وجود دارد ...

    • ژئو می گوید:

      اجازه دهید من پرداختن به این پرسش به عنوان بهترین من می توانم یک به یک:

      "پی نشان دهنده کوچکترین مقدار انحنای فضا-زمان که ممکن است در. (شخصیت روسیه) نشان دهنده بیشترین میزان. "

      [شخصیت روسیه است "جی"]

      در نسبیت عام نسبت محیط دایره به قطر به صفر هر زمان که سیاه چاله ها در منطقه که انحنای است که توصیف شده است (به دلیل مخرج، قطر دایره در مرکز یک سیاه چاله، می رود تا بی نهایت اگر فضا-زمان سوراخ مستمر و سیاه و سفید است می رود صفر به اندازه) هستند. مکانیک کوانتومی دارای یک مشکل با که بی نهایت در مخرج. آن را با نسبیت عام در تعارض در این نقطه و قطع این بی نهایت با ادعای خود که کوچکترین فاصله در فضا طول پلانک است. QST موافق با این ادعا و هندسه خود را به ما ارائه می دهد راه را به کمی تعیین یک عبارت برای حداکثر انحنای است که نهاد که قطع. چرا این جالب است؟ جالب است چرا که، اگر آن را حق است، پس از آن به این معنی است که دو اعداد بدون بعد ذاتی در نقشه های هندسی از فضا-زمان، همراه با پنج ارزش پلانک که از کوانتیزه نتیجه وجود دارد. این ما را به چیزی حتی جالب تر ... هر چه این عدد هندسی دیگر، ارزش خود را به بین صفر و pi باشد. محدود کردن آن پایین تر است انتظار قوی که بین 0 و 0.7 است. بنابراین ادعای این مدل هندسی است که برخی از عدد بین 0 و 0.7 که می توان به 5 پارامتر پلانک در ترکیب، و PI وجود دارد، به nonarbitrarily تولید و یا "رمز" اثرات هندسی است که ذاتی در فضا زمان هستند - ثابت های از طبیعت. همانطور که معلوم است این است که چنین تعداد وجود دارد، و آن اتفاق می افتد در آن محدوده قرار می گیرند. (نگاه کنید به ثابت های از طبیعت صفحه در این سایت است.) این به اندازه کافی مهم به حکم تلاش های فعلی به لحاظ نظری مقدار دقیق این شماره را از ملاحظات هندسی مشتق است.

      "QST است 11 بعد حتی اگر فضای واقعی 3 ابعاد، داخل است" حباب "3 بعد است، و فضای" حباب "حرکت را از طریق 3 بعد است، و هیچ چیز جدا آن مناطق را از یک دیگر وجود دارد.

      یک کوانتوم از چیزی کوچکترین واحد احتمالی که آن چیز است. یک کوانتوم از فضای یک "حباب" که فراتر از آن است هیچ تعریف از فضا وجود دارد است. با این حال، فضای داخل حباب وجود دارد، به نحوی. "

      من مطمئن هستم که این سوال (به درستی) درک نیست، اما من چاقو در آن را. اولین پاراگراف از آنچه QST است فرض، با چند توضیح مهم است. در مرحله اول، در فضای بین کوانتوم روزمره ما را از فضا است نه فضا به خودی، ما به آن مراجعه کنید به عنوان نمیشوند، و به همین ترتیب فضای داخل کوانتوم فضا است که به عنوان intraspace اشاره شده است. اگر فضا به گام این فضاهای دیگر (فوق العاده و درون) آشکار (اگر شما اجازه می دهد که یک کوانتوم فضا حجم به جای یک نقطه است). اگر کوانتوم فضا در حجم واقع، دو مجموعه دیگر از "فضاهای" لازم و متمایز از فضای طبیعی است. از قیاس از نوار از طلا به ذهن می آید. اگر یک نوار از طلا شما تقسیم را به کوچکترین اجزای آن، اجزاء است که هنوز هم می تواند در نظر گرفته شود طلا، شما یک نقطه برسد که در آن شما می تواند به تقسیم اجزای (اتم در این مورد) ادامه بیشتر است، اما آنچه نتایج حاصل از این تقسیم بیشتر می توانید دیگر در نظر گرفته می شود طلا. در این قیاس، شما معنای "طلا" توسط اتم های طلا فراتر رفته اند اما، به عنوان ما اکنون می دانیم، این است که تقسیم کل خیلی بیشتر است که می تواند انجام شود وجود دارد. شما می توانید واحد از طلا با شمارش نوترون، برای مثال حساب نمی آید. سوال خوبی است. کشتی با این موضوع این است که در هسته اصلی درک معنای می گویند که بافت X، Y، Z فضای کوانتیده است. بقیه تصویر حس را ندارد تا زمانی که این است به طور مستقیم جذب می شود. آیا این گرفتن در آنچه شما درخواست؟

      "جاذبه به عنوان شیب چگالی کوانتوم فضای ارائه شده است. اما گرانش به وسیله ماده ایجاد می شود. ماده فضای است. چگونه این حتی حس؟ "

      اول از همه، بله، کاملا، گرانش به عنوان شیب چگالی کوانتوم فضای ارائه شده است. سوال شما ممکن است در تلاش برای به دست آوردن در است، چه چیزی باعث این شیب چگالی به شکل؟ هنگامی که شیب چگالی کوانتوم هم بچسبند ساخت تا در اطراف آن کنگلومرا. تمام اشکال از انرژی است که در X، Y، Z، T آشکار می تحریف به سادگی هندسی در فضا-زمان. امواج چگالی می تواند از طریق رسانه موج دار شدن - که یکی از راه های حمایت از اعوجاج هندسی است. (چیزی شبیه به این خواهد بود گفت: به انرژی است که معادل به برخی از مقدار جرم استراحت، اما نمی توان آن را در حالت استراحت خود را وجود دارد.) راه دیگر این است که یک اعوجاج هندسی پایدار است به کوانتوم است که به هم گیر کرده است. هنگامی که یک گروه کوانتومی با هم گیر، کوانتوم فرد در اطراف آن، حرکت در اطراف و در بیشتر قسمت ها، ellastically تعامل، یک شیب چگالی به دلیل حفاظت از حرکت تشکیل می دهند. کوانتوم تنها تداوم به دو را ترک خواهد کرد دو در حال حرکت بسیار کندتر از یکی از اصلی. حرکات آهسته تر در اطراف انبوه تمرکز، و، حرکات آهسته تر ایجاد تراکم بیشتر. تحریفات هندسی بنابراین دائمی، و یا حداقل با ثبات، مانند کوانتوم چسبیده به هم، جرم در این مدل است.

      "زمان resonation کوانتوم فضا است. واسه چی؟ چگونه؟ چه استدلال منجر به این نتیجه گیری؟ "

      این یک سوال بزرگ است و می تواند برخی از تحقیقات بیشتر استفاده کنید. همانطور که می ایستد حال حاضر، ما ممکن است بگویند که این واقعیت است که بعد آشنا که ما هم پاسخ می توانید در نرخ های مختلف پیشرفت نشان می دهد که زمان را با یک حرکت خاص همراه است، به جای تمام حرکات. که حرکت چیست؟ با توجه به QST که حرکت resonations کوانتومی فضایی است. این به ما می دهد یک راه برای وضوح هستی شناختی در آنچه در آن حتی معنی می گویند که زمان کمتر است در یک منطقه از دیگری منتقل می شود. چنین ادعا و نه نامنسجم بدون چیزی برای مقایسه است. به عبارت دیگر، بدون این نوع از توضیح ما هنوز هم به مشکل که در همه جا در زمان جهان می گذرد در نرخ یک ثانیه در هر ثانیه اجرا شود. که یک منبع بزرگ از سردرگمی است مگر اینکه مقایسه خود است، بازتابی از خود است. در اینجا ما تبدیل قادر به درک پیشرفت زمان، در تمام نقاط در فضا، به عنوان چیزی است که می تواند در رابطه با supertime تعریف شده است. این موضوع نیاز به شرح و بسط بسیار بیشتر است، اما قطعا شروع با ارزش است.

      "اگر 11 بعد وجود دارد، چرا ما نمی توانیم آنها را ببینید؟ نظریه ریسمان می گوید آنهایی که اضافی فر بسیار کوچک است. QST به نظر می رسد ابعاد اضافی فقط از نوع ... شناور خارج وجود دارد ... "

      اول از همه، باید توجه داشت که به دلیل نظریه ریسمان برای چرا ما نمی توانیم این ابعاد اضافی را ببینید دقیقا همان در QST. در واقع، ما می تواند اثرات که وجود این ابعاد دیکته ببینید. قرار دادن راه دیگری در اطراف ما هستند baffling اثرات است که به ما (مکانیک کوانتومی به طور کلی و چند نفر دیگر) و آنها پیدا کردن هیچ راه حل و یا علت مگر اینکه ما شهود ابعاد اضافی. این سؤال، QST از نظریه ریسمان جدا نیست. این ابعاد دیگر خواهد بود به سادگی قابل مشاهده اگر ما می تواند در همه چیز در طول پلانک نگاه کنید. اما ما می توانیم (هنوز؟). بنابراین ما آنها را نمی بینید.

      من امیدوارم که این چیز حداقل روشن کمی. لطفا با من می دانم اگر من خود را بد تفسیر این سوال را دهید.

      • جان گفت:

        من یک زن و شوهر از سوالات. اگر من این حق را درک کنند، این نظریه پیش بینی است که گراویتون افسانه ای هرگز یافت می شود، درست است؟ از آنجا که اگر گرانش است که یک نیروی نیست، پس وجود خواهد داشت بدون ذرات نیروی، درست است؟ همچنین، چگونه میدان هیگز وارد این همه؟ من واقعا نمی دید اتاق را برای آن در این مدل است، اما بعد از آن دوباره من یک فیزیکدان. می تواند شما را روشن؟

        • تاد رابرتز می گوید:

          جان،
          بله شما درست است، این پیش بینی است که گراویتون وجود ندارد. همانطور که برای سوال دیگر خود را، من در پاسخ به پیتر در بخش "پرسش و پاسخ" است که باید این موضوع را با میدان هیگز برای شما روشن نوشته شده ام. :-) اگر شما هنوز هم پس از خواندن سوال که لطفا اجازه دهید من می دانم.

  5. Phyn می گوید:

    اولین چیزی که باید بگویم این است که من فکر می کنم که آن را بسیار جذاب تاد فکر کردم تا این نظریه و قرار دادن آن به جلو. این نوع تفکر رو به جلو در زمینه فیزیک مورد نیاز است که این روزها، و من خودم امیدوارم که برای انجام همان در آینده است.

    این است که قطعا یک نظریه جالب توجه است، اما من مسائل چند با این فیلم، حداقل (برخی ممکن است از جهل من بوجود می آیند):

    1. تاد ادعا می کند که تفسیر به طور کلی از ابعاد فضایی 4 فقط به عنوان یک ترفند ریاضی به حساب برای گرانش است. اما این ادعا نادرست است. بسیاری از فیزیکدانان انجام کار است که توسط گرانش آیا یک نیرو یا یکی دیگر از ابعاد است تحت تاثیر قرار نمی. به طوری که آنها ممکن است یک تفسیر غلط استفاده کنید، اما به دلیل آن فقط پیچیده برای آنها بدون انجام کاری برای آنها. فیزیکدانان که کار با فضا-زمان، اخترشناسان و کیهان شناسان، لازم بدانید که دقیقا چه گرانش است و این کار را تعریف گرانش به عنوان در ابعاد مکانی 4، نه یک نیروی.

    2. توده ریسمانهای در ابعاد مکانی 4. بنابراین با استفاده از استعاره وزن تاب یک مکان بازی کاملا معتبر است.

    3. تاد ادعا می کند که حباب طول پلانک حرکت در اطراف. واسه چی؟ نباید فضای یک ساختار سفت و سخت، مش؟ اگر کوانتوم فضا حرکت می کند مثل ذرات هوا، آنها چیزی شبیه به مکانیک آماری اطاعت کنند. این بدان معناست که یک فرصت غیر قابل اغماض داشتن توده بزرگ از بخش کوانتوم و بزرگ است که فاقد هر گونه فضا در همه وجود دارد. و با تعریف تاد از زمان آن بخش نیز سریع تر یا کندتر حرکت در طول زمان. توجه داشته باشید که این بخش را بدون هیچ دلیل در همه علاوه بر ماهیت احتمالاتی کوانتوم فضا-زمان حرکت در اطراف و تداوم را به یکدیگر بوجود می آیند. این قطعا در جهان دیده نمی شود.

    بحث 4. تاد برای ابعاد اضافی است که تناقض. اگر طول پلانک کوچکترین فاصله ای که می توان اندازه گیری و یا تعریف شده است، آن را می سازد هیچ حس به تعریف ابعاد تازه ای به توضیح موقعیت در کوچکتر از مقیاس پلانک. آنها به معنی چیزی در هر دو یک انسان، سطح ریاضی و در سطح فیزیک جهان است.

    5. من درک می کنم که خیلی بیشتر به این نظریه وجود دارد، اما تاد نتواند به توضیح دهید که چگونه و یا چرا ماده و انرژی به ما می بینیم آن را در حال حاضر کوانتوم فضا تاثیر می گذارد. من فرض این است که بیشتر به نظریه توضیح داد. همچنین، چگونه نور مناسب به این نظریه؟ نور همیشه با C سفر نمی کند هرچند با این نظریه که که نور به نحوی از این فضا 11 بعدی جدا نشان می دهد. (من شخصا هیچ موضوع را با این ایده و داشته اند همان خودم فکر کردم. اما آن چه نیاز به محاسبه می باشند.)

    6. اگر مقیاس طول پلانک است که بسیار کوچکتر از هر گونه ذرات، چگونه ممکن است که تونل زنی کوانتومی به رخ می دهد؟ به نظر می رسد بسیار بعید است برای یک الکترون را از طریق فوق العاده فضا حرکت می کند بدون برخورد کوانتوم دیگری از فضا برای یک فاصله بیش از 10 دستورات قدر بزرگتر از طول پلانک. مطمئنا، آن را ممکن است در هر حال حاضر و پس از آن رخ می دهد، اما احتمال می شود بسیار کوچکتر از آنچه در حال حاضر دیده می شود.

  6. تاد رابرتز می گوید:

    Phyn،

    تشکر از شما برای نظرات و سوالات خود را. اجازه دهید به برخی از نظرات و پیشنهادات خود را به عنوان بهترین من می توانم.

    1. نظر من در مورد گرانش که شما به آن اشاره قرار بود به در مرجع به یک مدل تصویری از گرانش، نه به فیزیکدانان معادلات استفاده برای نمایندگی آن و یا به آنچه که آنها را نگه دارید درست باشد در مورد گرانش. از آنجا که آنها برای مدت طولانی تحت محدودیتهای اقلیدسی (و یا حتی غیر اقلیدسی و پیوسته) معیارهای کار می کرد، فیزیکدانان با استفاده از یک نمایندگی بعدی کاهش می یابد. شما درست در اشاره به این که این بدان معنا نیست که آنها را به وجود گرانش نسبت به نتیجه فعل و انفعال با ابعاد مکانی دیگر هستند. مدل بصری و دقیق، نمایندگی جدید، برای هندسه از طبیعت است که به ما می دهد دسترسی کامل بصری به چیزهایی که ما در حال حاضر دسترسی بصری نیست که من بهدنبال چه هستم است. به عبارت دیگر، من این است که نمودار به "ورق لاستیکی" آیا ما دسترسی بصری کامل به آنچه گرانش است را، به همین دلیل است دارای خواص آن است، و غیره. هدف من این است برای رسیدن به یک مدل است که ما که دسترسی است.

    2. مفهوم وزن متاسفانه کردن از شهود ما که چیزی با وزن پایین توسط گرانش کشیده ایفا می کند. I'm perfectly fine with saying that the presence of mass warps the trampoline, but as soon as we say make our representation based on the concept that it is its weight that warps the trampoline, we have now used some notion of gravity (weight equals strength of gravity multiplied by the mass) in our answer for what is gravity. This reduces the utility of our answer. That was my point. I am not mocking the value of the trampoline in any way. I love that it is an attempt to be a model that we can access to at least partially gain an intuitive understanding of how gravity works. I'm just looking for a model that goes a bit further.

    3. Technically I'm not actually claiming anything (nor is anyone else working on qst). We are, however, hypothesizing about the geometry of spacetime and seeing where our hypothesis leads us. We are setting some axioms up for space and checking to see if those axioms set up a system that naturally contains that which we currently call mysterious. As scientists we understand that our current set of axioms might turn out to be incorrect, but so far they are leading us to something quite promising. In addition, we believe, as you appear to, that even if we end up proving that our set of axioms do not mimic the construction of the Nature's fabric, exploring new ideas is what science is all about. Right or wrong, there is a lot to learn from the process we are undertaking.

    You are correct in noting that our current assumptions about the structure of x, y, z space depicts the quanta moving around, which makes its representation something akin to statistical mechanics (hence the many quantum mechanical effects that we see in Nature). I'm curious as to why you think that the structure of spacetime should somehow be constrained to being a rigid grid. In the end you may be right about spacetime having this property, but at this point I see no reason to assume this as a brute contraint. Also, the point you made about having sections of space that will evolve at different rates through time is absolutely correct, however it only applies to very small scales (unless a macroscopic density gradient is present = curved spacetime). As we move to macroscopic scales (like 10^-25 meters, or 10^-34 seconds) these effects are washed out for the same statistical reasons you pointed out earlier.

    4. I apologize if I misspoke or caused a confusion on this point. In our system the Planck length is defined as the smallest quantum unit of x, y, z. Just as a gold atom is the smalls unit of a chance of gold, a quantum of space is the smallest unit of any x, y, z volume. It does makes sense to talk about less than one gold atom, or to visualize splitting a gold atom, but it does not makes sense to continue calling what you end up with a fraction of a gold atom. Once you go smaller than one gold atom you have transcended the definition of gold. You do not have gold any more in any sense. At this point you are forced to recognize that what you have is something completely different from gold. The same applies for our geometric system. Since we have set up an axiom space that defines the medium of x, y, z as being composed of quanta, comprised of base units, we cannot talk about smaller units and still be talking about anything in the x, y, z realm. This, however, does not inhibit us from talking about something smaller. It just requires that when we do we recognize that we are talking about something else. In as much as we are talking about spatial dimensions, positions within a single quanta occupy different superspatial positions, but those different positions do not reflect upon the x, y, z metric. The geometry is quite interesting mathematically because it is a wholly invertible map. In other words, it is a perfect geometric fractal. As it turns out, this system also appears to comes with a few properties (like the statistical character you mentioned before) that are quite suggestive of quantum mechanical effects.

    5. سوال بزرگ. به عنوان یک پاسخ کوتاه: مهم هر پایدار (در هر مقیاس را انتخاب می کنید به تعریف به عنوان اندازه کافی بلند به عنوان "پایدار" به حساب) تحریف در ترتیبات هندسی از کوانتوم فضا است. برای مثال، اگر دو کوانتوم با هم مانند حباب برای یک دوره زمانی طولانی قبل از اینکه توسط دیگر از برخورد از هم جدا می چسبد، پس از آن آنها نشان دهنده یک پیچ خوردگی های هندسی برای آن دوره از زمان است. این نوع جرم است. انرژی می تواند به عنوان تحریف است که پایدار نیست و بدون انتشار فکر می کردم. موج چگالی برای مثال می توانید از نقطه A به نقطه B سفر و توان به عنوان پایدار در طول انتشار فکر کردم، اما می تواند خود را بدون تبلیغ از طریق رسانه حفظ نمی کند.

    نور همیشه در C سفر، در X، Y، Z متوسط. سرعت موج از یک تغییر محیط خاص که به چگالی، فشار، دما که تغییر متوسط. پس از یازده امواج دیدگاه بعدی است که از طریق رسانه سفر به عنوان داشتن سرعت که بر تراکم آن رسانه بستگی دارد حل شود. با این حال، در مقایسه با خود رسانه این سرعت غیر متغیر است. به عبارت دیگر، از X داخلی، Y، Z دیدگاه سرعت نور ثابت است. شاید من از دست رفته نیروی نقطه / درخواست شما است. لطفا توضیح اگر نگرانی خود را پرداخته نشده است.

    6. مشخصات فنی الکترون است به عنوان داشتن یک شعاع به اندازه صفر تعریف شده است. از آنجا که مکانیک کوانتومی حداقل اندازه به طول پلانک محدود ما ممکن است فکر می کنم که "صفر" واقعا به معنی یک طول پلانک. من مطمئن هستم که در آن من به طور خاص در این ایستاده است. اما من می گویم که احتمال برای الکترون به بادبان از طریق رسانه بدون تعامل بسیار بسیار بزرگ است اگر آن است که حتی به یک طول پلانک نزدیک است.

    با تشکر از شما برای بینش خود، افکار و سوالات. من شخصا برای شما آرزوی موفق به عنوان توسعه خود را از پا شما را دنبال کنند. اگر شما در حفظ پرسیدن سوال هایی از این من مطمئن هستم شما یک تاثیر بزرگ در جهان خواهید بود.

    تاد

    • Phyn می گوید:

      تاد،

      با تشکر برای پاسخ سریع و پاکسازی نظر / سوال. من باید چند مورد پاسخ خود را. (من سعی کنید به آنها را شماره برای مطابقت با شماره قبلی)

      3. This might just be from my lack of knowledge/experience, but isn't there a non-negligible probability (using statistical mechanics) that a region could form with a very high density of space quanta or a very low density? Looking back I realize now the probability of such a region forming on any detectable scale is highly unlikely, but there is some chance. So there could be a region or regions in the universe that act like a black hole (or the inverse of that) without any energy or mass having caused it. Or am I stretching how likely such an event would be?

      4. I think what I was trying to ask with this question is why the three dimensions that are defined within the quanta are necessary?

      5. My questions about light basically pertains to how light is different than matter in your theory. If light also travels through super-space and space quanta, why is it still seen as traveling at c at any velocity the observer is at? As I understand it, the reason light always travels at c is because special relativity has an asymptotic behavior. Time dilation and space contraction go to infinity as velocity goes to c. I can see that in your theory the behavior would be exponential, but it's not clear to me why it would also be asymptotic. Light would still pass from space quanta to super-space to space quanta, so wouldn't it still experience some time and space? Sorry if I'm not being clear.

      Also, I was wondering about how your theory fits with super-inflation theory. Can space quanta be created/destroyed? I assume not and if so does that mean the universe before super-inflation was in a sense a super black hole? In this theory was super-inflation just an expansion if these very dense region of space quanta? Or do you have some other explanation? Along similar lines, do space quanta have a speed limit? If they do, what is it? If it is c how would you account for the super-inflation event?

      با تشکر دوباره،
      Phyn

  7. تاد رابرتز می گوید:

    Phyn,

    Great questions. :-)

    3. Yes, due to vacuum energy there is some probability that matter, or for that matter even a macroscopic black hole, could form without any previous forms of matter leading to its formation. However, to say that it formed without any energy having caused it may be a bit of a stretch. If we restrict our definition of energy to specific forms, like light or baryonic matter, then we can say that. But such a restriction seems a bit artificial to me. The inherent energy of the quanta of space bouncing around and interacting with each other would be responsible.

    4. Within a quantized metric the three intra-spatial dimensions are necessary for defining position more accurately than x, y, z dimensions allow. On a more metaphysical level (the philosophical definition of metaphysical not the new age one) they also allow us to access the actual structure of the Universe and how that structure is responsible for how things are. If we ignored them then we would be missing part of the picture. And interpreting a system from a reduced construction can lead to confusion. Technically the eleven-dimensional construction is also only an approximation. The next level of increased accuracy is a axiomatic metric of 30 dimensions, then 85, then 248 and so on. The full picture unveils as a fractal, and that full structure gives us even richer access to questions that reach beyond the confines of our local system (the Universe = all the space connected by the last Big Bang).

    5. This question is rich and worth some time. Perhaps you would be interested in reading the preprint of my book? Chapter 8 – The Speed of Spacetime explains in detail why the speed of light is constant according to this geometry, and why Lorentz contraction and time dilation occur. Your question might be more fully addressed in there.

    If I am understanding your question correctly, then it might be worth pointing out that according to the definitions set up in our construction a quantum of space does not experience time expect in whole number increments of the Planck time. However, the quanta do still experience supertime as they move through superspace. This means that things can move from quanta to quanta as we the observers move through time, but since the passing from one quanta to another involves the elastic properties of the quanta (and so does the passage of time), the fastest something can move through x, y, z space is such that the number of quanta it has moved is equal to the number of chronons in time that the observer has aged. This thing/energy moves through x, y, z space but it does not move through time (because it does not experience any independent resonations). It changes position in space and the observer moves through time by an equivalent number of quantum values. So anything moving in this fashion does move through space, and then superspace, space, superspace, and so on, and all along through supertime, but it does NOT move through time. It does, however experience supertime. Is that what you were getting at?

    Also, as per your question about inflation… I believe that qst does not have expectations that space ban be created or destroyed. The Big Bang, in this model, occurs because another universe outside of the system of our universe collides with our universe. The structure of our universe (the arrangements of the quanta of space) is altered in response to this such that all of the quanta are pressed together. The complete system is a collection in which there are no independently acting quanta (hence it acts as though there were only one location in the entire Universe and of course no time). This is very close to the picture of a black hole, only a real black hole forms internally from a loss of energy, this forms from energy from outside the system so it is not a stable configuration. Then, when the two systems rebound off of each other their internal constituents begin to separate, causing there to be more than one uniquely acting location within each. So each universe goes from having effectively one unique location and no time to having many many uniquely behaving locations and some time in a very short burst (whether you measure it by time or supertime). Chapter 29 deals with this topic in much greater detail should you desire to read it.

    من امیدوارم که کمک می کند.

    Please remember, even if this theory eventually ends up jiving very well with what we know so far, and gives us more of an explanation that any other construction, it doesn't mean that it is right or that we shouldn't all keep asking questions and thinking up new ways of seeing things. Climbing beyond our current edge of understanding is what it is all about.

    • Phyn says:

      تاد،

      Thanks for the answers. I think that clears up the questions I have right now. I just requested a pre-print copy of the book and can't wait to delve deeper into this theory. And I completely agree that we always need to keep questioning.

      Phyn

  8. Stephen says:

    This question is for Thad, or for whomever can answer it. I'm really impressed with all of this. It's definitely very convincing and I'm really looking forward to seeing how this is either supported or refuted within the scientific community. The main question I have though, is how does QST play into the emergence of the forces during the first moments of the Big Bang? I know that theoretical physics holds that the fundamental forces emerged as a consequence of the Big Bang and were not immediately present at the inception of the universe. I'm just wondering if QST affords a comprehensive explanation for this. If there is would you mind sharing that with me? Also, if there isn't a comprehensive explanation, could you explain how they figure that the fundamental forces were not present at the genesis of the universe?

    Also, I've been searching the web and haven't really been able to find a lot on QST other than on your website. I'm just wondering why such an interesting idea hasn't taken hold in the scientific community and why no one has openly talked about this theory of yours. Do you know why this is the case? I'd love to hear more about this. I've been gobbling up your website watched both your conversation pieces and the TED talk, which will hopefully make these ideas more public, and I'm really excited by the prospects of QST and what it can mean for the breadth of human knowledge.

    • تاد رابرتز می گوید:

      Dear Stephen,

      تشکر از شما برای پیام خود را.

      First off, let me apologize for the late response. I have been at the bottom of the Grand Canyon, exploring a land full of mysteries and beauty. It was an amazing experience.

      In response to your questions:

      We share your excitement and curiosity about this theory, and look forward to seeing how it with be either supported or refuted by science. We might, however, point out that this is different from being excited about refutation or support from the current scientific community. Because science is made up of a compilation of research programs, it is an active social entity – carrying several social pressures that can lead it astray in any given point in time. Nevertheless, because science is a self-correcting machine, over the long haul it will correct itself toward a more clear and accurate picture. That is to say that if the current climate in the scientific community was such that it immediately accepted qst, this would not in and of itself provide concrete support that qst is an accurate reflection of Nature. Neither would its immediate rejection (there are several historical examples of theories that we now accept that were rejected by the scientific community at large in the time (and social climate) that they were first proposed in). What really matters is – does qst accurately map the true structure of Nature? We are hopeful that we will secure a clear, non-biased answer to that question in time.

      You asked how qst plays into the emergence of the forces during the first moments of the Big Bang… The answer is a beautiful example of how qst gives us incredible intuitive access to rather complex ideas. First, let me note that current thought suggests that as we run the clock back toward the Big Bang, there are symmetries that go from broken to unbroken. Translating this into English, this means that as we approach that first moment we go from having distinctly recognizable forces (four of them) to forces that merge in their descriptions. As we approach the first moment (after the Big Bang) all four forces gain complete symmetry with the background metric. They can no longer be teased apart in this state. This special axiomatic state of the Universe is responsible for the fact that the forces are no longer indistinguishable from the metric.

      In qst, this situation is made more clear. In this model it is suggested that in that first moment, all the quanta that make up our universe were compressed together (by an external collision by another universe). Because of this there were no uniquely acting quanta (locations) in the universe in this moment. The whole collection acted like a singularity, but instead of reaching this state by losing energy and maximizing entropy, it represented a highly energetic state with minimal entropy (because of its external cause). Because all the quanta acted in unison, there was in effect, only one unique x, y, z location at this point in time. The significant result of this geometric condition (as per our current discussion), is that it was not possible to have spatial density gradients in this moment, nor was it possible to have any waves propagating through the x, y, z medium, or little whirlpools of mixing, etc. The entire axiomatic set of quanta were rigidly locked together. This is why there were no distinguishable forces from the background metric. As the rebound occurred, and the quanta that make up the x, y, z volume of our universe began to separate, the number of independently acting locations in the universe exponentially multiplied, and the geometric distortions that we refer to as forces became geometrically possible.

      Please let me know if that helped.

      About your question about why qst has not taken hold in the scientific community yet… a little background might help here. Scientific progress is a messy thing. In part, this has to do with the demarcation problem (the task of being able to identify scientific endeavors from pseudoscientific endeavors). Karl Popper famously tried to help speed science along, and overcome this problem, with the suggestion that what makes something science is that it is falsifiable. This has been a popular criterion of science ever since. I am certainly drawn towards the claim that a theoretical construct should make claims that can be falsified before we put our full trust into it. However, as has been pointed out, Popper's criterion cannot actually distinguish scientific endeavors from pseudoscientific ones. There are fields that we all feel comfortable labeling pseudoscientific that make falsifiable claims. But more importantly, all fields considered scientific rest on axioms, assumptions, and non-falsifiable statements that play a fundamental role in their construction. If we are expected to abandon all theories that contain non-falsifiable statements, then there would be no identifiable sciences at all. In response to this some have grasped for the idea that there is some sort of art to picking the axioms beneath a theory – those that perform that art too loosely fall out of the range of science. This idea lead Thomas Kuhn to conjecture that what it meant to be scientific was to conform to the current scientific paradigm. In this view science becomes merely a social construct that shifts with the tides of time. Paul Feyerabend and Imre Lakatos later wrestled with these issues and came to the conclusion that science is not an autonomous form of reasoning, but is inseparable from the larger body of human thought and inquiry. They determined that because science is a human endeavor questions of truth and falsity are not uniquely empirical.

      All of this has led to the general recognition that the demarcation problem is intractable. In response Paul Thagard has suggested that we alter our focus and deem a theory as non-scientific if it satisfies the following two conditions:

      1 – It is unpromising: The theory has been less progressive than alternative theories over a long period of time, and faces many unsolved problems: and
      2 – It doesn't adhere to the Scientific Method: The community of practitioners makes little attempt to develop the theory towards solutions of the problems, shows no concern for attempts to evaluate the theory in relation to others, and is selective in considering confirmations and disconfirmations.

      Note that the first criteria requires long periods of time.

      Certainly, in reference to this evaluation qst is in a scientific vein. However, according to this criteria a “long period of time” must pass before we can expect it to have secured a place for itself in scientific history.

      Cutting through all of this philosophy of science, I suspect that the answer to your question has a lot to do with the fact that the majority of practicing scientists are not fully aware of the intricacies of theory construction, or the full history of the demarcation problem. Many scientists have communicated with me about the value they see in this theory. Others have found this theory objectionable based on an emotional fear that it might disagree with currently popular agendas. For some reason these individuals try to undermine the credibility of qst by resting on Popper's falsifiability requirement, which I find strange since there are many many ways in which qst can be falsified.

      All in all, however, I believe that the biggest reason qst has not yet taken off to a mainstream platform is that it is new. We simply need to give it more time and keep spreading the word. It may also have a bit of a harder time taking off than we might expect because it was mostly developed during some intense years of research while I was in prison. Nevertheless, I am confident in the self-correcting method of science, and I believe that it will eventually fully evaluate the richness of this theory.

      Just before he passed away, I was in communication with Benoît Mandelbrot, the father of fractals. We discussed the fractal structure of qst and he granted it his blessing to the idea. Mandelbrot was a man that gave the world a new idea, and he gave it to them in a non-traditional way. After professional scientists outright rejected his idea, Mandelbrot continued to develop his insight and share his idea until its practical powers were undenyable. The world at large became familiar with fractals and began to use them in electronic designs, biological calculations, and more. Then and only then, did the research program of formal Mathematics accept the importance of Mandelbrot's ideas. The lesson I take from this is that, if an idea is useful and brings us closer to the truth, it will eventually be heard.

      Thanks for your interest.

      Also, if you want to read more, I'd be happy to email you pre-print pdf copy of the entire book.

      خالصانه،
      تاد

      • Stephen says:

        Thanks Thad, this is immensely illuminating. I have to repeat that I'm really excited by the prospect of this theory. Murray Gell-Mann says that “there is a common experience in theoretical physics: that BEAUTY is often a very succesful criterion for choosing the right theory” and there is no doubt that qst provides an example of a very beautiful explanation of the construct of our universe. I'll definitely be watching to see where this theory takes us in the coming years. I'm sure that we'll hear a lot more from people once your book is published.

        Also, is there any illumination that qst can cast on young's double-slit experiment? If you can't tell already your new theory is making me so curious about so many persisting physics questions and how it might be able to help us understand them.

        • تاد رابرتز می گوید:

          استفان،
          I've emailed you a pre-print pdf copy of the book. Please let me know if you didn't receive it (its a rather large file). Chapters 12 and 13 should adequately address your question about how qst makes sense of particle/wave duality. I think you'll be delighted to discover the solution it posits. I might add that Bohmian mechanics offers a rather interesting ontological perspective on the whole particle/wave topic. You might be interested in investigating that a bit also. The two perspectives have a lot in common.

          • Stephen says:

            Oh great. I'm excited to dig into it. I'll be sure to let you know if I have further questions

  9. Stefan palmer says:

    I am a student at weber state majoring in sales so needless to say i know nothing about quantum physics. In fact i hadnt even heard of it until i got home late one night and stumbled across you and this sweet website. I have always been fascinated by space and how this world goes round. But i have always assumed that all of that stuff was over my head, but you lay out information that is so complex so simply that a dumb ass sales major can follow what you are teaching. I am not being humble just realistic when i say i will never be able to make the discoveries you have, but i am so thankful you are willing to share your knowledge with me. If we all put our energy into helping each other a long we would be so much better off. Thx for doing just that, and i will keep my eyes open for any updates or discoveries you have made. The only complaint that i have is its 730 am And i have to get up at 9 but i cant get off this damn website to go to sleep because of how fascinating the discoveries that you have made are. THX دوباره

    • تاد رابرتز می گوید:

      Dear Stefan,
      Its great to hear about your excitement. I believe that everyone can be a part of the amazing quest to uncover the truth and peer behind the veil. We all have what it takes to ask questions and try to make sense of the big mysteries of our time. I see the end goal as desirable, but the journey as the real treasure. Thanks for joining the journey. I look forward to seeing where it takes us. If you are interested in reading a preprint of my book, please email me and I'll forward a pdf to you.
      تاد

  10. Stefan palmer says:

    Thankyou so much my email is stefan.​d.​palmer@​gmail.​com

  11. Ben says:

    Thad, I find qst theory amazingly elegant and would really like develop a deeper intuition of it. Could you perhaps send me one of those pdf copies?

    bwc7​0​@​email.​vccs.​edu

    Cheers, Ben

  12. jake3_14 says:

    As a language lover, I'm confused by the terms that have origins in x,y,z space applied to non-x,y,z space. How can quanta have inter-space is the notion of space itself is rooted in three dimensions? Similarly, how can quanta move in superspace, when the concept of movement is rooted in three dimensions? Even the concept of resonance is rooted in the 3-D concept of vibration. Doesn't QST (and perhaps, quantum mechanics) need distinct terminology, even when trying to simplify it for the lay public, so that the public doesn't try to apply three-dimensional concepts where they don't apply?

    • تاد رابرتز می گوید:

      Jake, You are certainly correct, distinct terminology is needed here. Our language is well rooted in Euclidean assumptions, but this model is not Euclidean. Throughout the book I try to keep these issues clear, giving distinct names to different kinds of spaces (intraspatial, spatial, and superspatial).

  13. jake3_14 says:

    Typo in the above: ” How can quanta have inter-space *if* the notion of space itself is rooted in three dimensions?

  14. Gary says:

    One major confusion,

    In conversation one we hear how bodies do not exert a force of gravity between each other thereby causing orbits… we learn that this is a fudge of classical thinking.

    We instead learn the very intuitive ideas based on density and the redefinition of what it means to continue following the straight line. That is, that in QST those orbits are not the result of a phantom pulling force but rather the result of 'curved' space causing a straight path to describe a closed loop (or, rather, a closed loop to describe a straight line)

    PROBLEM

    In our universe, orbits decay and objects collide… yet in QST only two straight paths exist. The first would appear to offer an eternal orbit (eternal as no gravitational force is acting) The second would be a direct line towards the centre of density (Climbing the gradient) which, in the absence of a classical gravitational pull, should be as simple as leaving the centre of density (Descending the gradient)

    But, we know that firing a rocket straight up from the earths centre of mass is rather difficult as an 'apparent' pull is felt. Can QST account for this problem of descending the gradient?

    Alternatively, we know that left alone and undisturbed a rocket at apogee will submit to an apparent pulling force and ascend QST's gradient… but the motivating nature does not appear to be accounted for.

    And finally, as mentioned, orbits decay. If one imagines a perfectly circular gradient of density as might be described by a large mass… QST seems to dictate that, in the absence of mans bogus gravity, an orbiting object will orbit indefinitely as nothing is acting upon it to sway it from continuing in its perfectly straight (closed) line (loop)

    I worry (perhaps unfairly) that Thad's QST is fulfilling its aims, but only if the aims are to sell books. It is a legitimate worry with all of the snakeoil currently being peddled … and, whilst I hope this is not the case, it would cheer me up considerably if I didn't 'instinctively' feel so many inconsistencies. In some ways I would feel much better if the scientific community felt inclined to debunk QST – as at least then it would mean that it had possibly touched a nerve.

    I wonder if anyone can shed light on the above QST explanations for the observable effect we dub 'gravity'

    Many thanks,

    -Gary
    Humble Student, The Open University (UK)

    • تاد رابرتز می گوید:

      Dear Gary,
      It remains unclear as to why you presumed that only two straight paths exist. Perhaps this was an artifact of a brief description you encountered instead of the full one. I invite you to read the whole book, and encourage you to be critical of it. Should you find any internal inconsistencies, please point them out. In lieu of that interaction, it may help to note that in a density gradient of space, the straight path for a particular object also depends on the velocity of that object. Two objects approaching a radial density gradient (like the one belonging to the Earth) with identical directions, but different speeds, will follow different paths in response to that gradient. Each path is the straight path for each object. Both sides (and all parts) of each object must interact with the same amount of space. This, of course, is what we observe. Also, it is important to remember that all gradients present play a role. It would be a mistake to oversimplify our example if we mean it to apply to the real world. Of course, often times out of a desire to explain the model simplifications are used – like starting with a region that holds just the earth and another object. Starting with such a simplification does not imply that the model actually thinks the real universe only contains these two objects. For prediction purposes this model is matched perfectly with Einstein's description of spacetime curvature. The primary difference between models is the intuitive import that this one carries with it. That said, it is based on clear and well-defined assumptions, which anyone is free to agree with or disagree with. Disagreeing with the assumptions does not really attack the model, it just steps outside of it and ignores it altogether. To attack the model one must find internal inconsistencies. If you'd like to receive a free copy of the book (as I have offered all along) I'd be happy to hear your thoughts on it. Thank you for your skepticism.

  15. Armen says:

    How would qst explain our asymmetric visible universe in terms of matter and anti-matter?

    • تاد رابرتز می گوید:

      سوال بزرگ! The answer comes from a property of superfluids. When we rotate a superfluid volume, the bulk of that volume does not start spinning about like a regular fluid would. Instead, the rotational energy we put into the system is absorbed internally as quantum vortices inside the bulk. The direction we rotate that volume will determine the direction of those vortices. The model assumes that the vacuum is a superfluid, and that on a different resolution the entire universe is like a suspended superfluid drop in a higher system. The expectation is that collisions between drops will rarely be head on. Instead, they will impart at least a small amount of rotational energy into each rebounding drop/universe. But, since each is composed of a superfluid, that rotational energy will manifest internally as quantum vortices. As stable metric distortions, these vortices are the analog of fundamental matter particles. So in one universe they will have one direction, and in the other the reverse direction. Additional vortices can be created within the bulk, but they must be created in pairs (matter and antimatter equally). Since the vast majority of vortices are consequent from the last external collision, we have an overwhelmingly majority of vortices that correlate to matter and only a little that correlate with antimatter.
      تاد

  16. brett says:

    please send me a copy of your book. this is good work.

  17. دانیل می گوید:

    تاد عزیز،

    First of all: thank you for this enlightening new view on reality. Please send me a copy of your book.
    Deeply impressed with your work, I set out on a quest to find any comments on this by any credible scientific sources. Perhaps my searching skills are failing me, but I am having trouble finding any. At the moment, that is my biggest concern about your theory. The fact that it has been around for years now, and revolutionary as it seems to be, it has not caused a huge stir in the scientific community. Again, perhaps my searching skills have failed me, I hope they have, and if so, please enlighten me once more.

    Either way, I love what you're doing, please keep doing it!

    با احترام،

    دانیل

    • تاد رابرتز می گوید:

      Try searching for the more general overarching name 'superfluid vacuum theory.' Of course, you'll find that despite the many publications that fall within superfluid vacuum theory, we are a far cry away from seeing a stir in the scientific community. A revolution in thinking requires first that people value thinking. The current situation in the physics community counters that value. Only one interpretation of quantum mechanics is taught in most universities, and it is the interpretation that most discourages thinking – in fact it attempts to actually forbid an interpretation, which is why some have called it “the Copenhagen non-interpretation.” It is even popular now to deny philosophy as a part of science, which reduces science to meaningless technician work. So the revolution we are pushing is less about a specific new interpretation or model of Nature, but one that brings science back to a nobel human endeavor. Your skepticism is more than welcome, it is encouraged. Scientists should not make ultimate claims to truth, but they cannot abandon the quest for truth and call themselves scientists either. ارسال شما در کتاب در حال حاضر. Please examine it in full and send your critique.

  18. Shane Killeen says:

    سلام تاد

    I have only recently discovered your work when an acquaintance of mind, the writer AA Attanasio, suggested I check out your work and since then I have watched all I can and read through this comment thread with great interest. I have absolutely no scientific background but have pursued a theory for the last 15 years that explains all of these phenomena intuitively as one cogent whole. What I find staggering is how many conclusions are the same and how similar the grand picture is. I dare say that I believe I have something significant to contribute your theory but it would be jumping the gun without having studied your whole document. I tried to find it on Kindle with no luck. Is it possible that I could have a copy of your book as well? It would be deeply appreciated and an expansion on what is already a remarkable affirmation.

  19. Niklas says:

    So, I think I'm following all of this pretty well, except how the quanta create matter as we know it.
    My mind is all over the place, so I apologize if you get lost, haha.
    How do quanta stick together? Is it a stable geometry dependent on factors like temperature, distance, charge, etc? (There are 5 that we know of, right?) Does each quanta have a unique value for each of those? Or react TO those quantities in a field around it? And do these quanta eventually stick together so much that they form, say, a quark? And depending on the geometry they form different quarks? Then those quarks form different geometries into particles? What stops quanta from continuing to get stuck? Constants of nature? How are those defined?

    Second question, kinda:
    How would we explain tossing a ball straight up into the air? The ball travels through a very dense field of quanta, but what pulls it directly back down? The fact that the “bottom” of the ball is bouncing off of quanta more than the “top” of the ball?

    • تاد رابرتز می گوید:

      Hi Niklas,

      این پرسش بزرگ هستند. I will give short answers here, but I have written up much more detailed explanations on these very topics in my book. If you do not have it please send me an email requesting it and I'll pass it along.

      First let's recall that the quanta are constituents of a superfluid. Superfluids support quantum vortices, which do not dissipate because the superfluid has no internal friction. These stable quantum vortices are the fundamental particles. Quantum vortices only exist in quantized sizes. This gives us a method by which to match up the fundamental particles of mass in Nature. Remember, mass is a distortion in the fabric of space, the vacuum. So the notion of mass is no longer applicable on the scale of the quantum.

      The constants of Nature section in my book should answer all of your questions on this topic. If not, I'd love to hear your questions.

      As for your questions about the ball being tossed straight up. The thing to remember is that the “field” of curved space, or the density gradient of quanta, is not a static thing. In the macroscopic sense its average properties might seem static, but the underlying motions and actions that form it are not. All we have to do is remember that objects that are not under the influence of a “force” will tend to travel straight. The straight path is what we must consider, and the solution is always the path that allows all parts of an object to experience identical amounts of space. If an object is sitting in a density gradient of space, the little motions of the quanta that make up that gradient determine how much space the object experiences. Since there is a non-zero gradient, there is a macroscopically measurable different in the amount of quanta interacting with the “bottom” side versus the “top” side. Which ever side is interacting with space the most determines the direction the object will tend to go. Chapter 9 will describe this in greater detail.

  20. جان می گوید:

    تاد،

    As a futher device for our imagination would you mind stetching, with commentary about density gradients, the jounery of each of a single photon, neutrino and electron from say a super nova explosion till that particle interacts with something.

    It is also a test of the explainatory power of your theroy against current obsevations.

    I love your work and it seems to me as a trained logician that it would make sense to test a theory with minimal assumptions before inventing the current set of ad hoc assumptions for dark matter, dark energy, gravitational force gravitions, etc

    • تاد رابرتز می گوید:

      سلام جان،
      As a single photon travels through “empty” space from a super nova until it interacts with something, its path is determined by the vacuum state of the region it is passing through. That state evolves through time, but if we assume empty space, meaning zero curvature, then the largest effect we must be concerned with is the microscopic effects from the different possible arrangements of the quanta (the different allowed configuration states of the vacuum). For large wavelengths of light those differences will be washed completely out by the averaging-over process, but for sufficiently high energy photons (short wavelength) there will be noticeable effects. For example, the scales on which we would call the paths straight will decrease, and more importantly, photons that are extremely high energy will tunnel through the vacuum – meaning that they will go from location A in space to location B without interacting with all the space between those two locations. One testable prediction here is that these high energy photons will exhibit less red shift than lower energy photons from the same sources (or distances). The model specifically explains that red shift is a function of the inelastic collisions between quanta of space, so if the highest energy photons are skipping some of those collisions then they will be less red shifted. The practical difficultly with measuring this effect is that it is only really expected for photons with wavelengths that approach the Planck length (at least within an order of magnitude or a few orders). Nevertheless, the effect is waiting to be measured.

  21. Christian Grieco says:

    تاد،

    Your work is fascinating. It's simplicity is eloquent. Was hoping to learn a great deal more and am hoping to get a copy of your book.

    • تاد رابرتز می گوید:

      متشکرم. I'm emailing you the book now.

      I have also recently just finished showing (including the math) that a superfluid vacuum automatically explains the electric field and magnetic field as divergence and curl in the flow of the vacuum. I'm starting to edit chapter 20 to include that information, so if you are interested then send me a request for an update before you reach Chapter 20. 😉

  22. Anderson says:

    I'm in love with this idea that reality is 11 dimensional. I would have to ask however that if 1 planck can be thought of as a bubble, what is the measure of the surface of the bubble? Is the circumference still Pi? It seems to me like it would have to be, but I'm concerned that that might be my predisposition to think in a Newtonian way. At such a small scale, are these “bubbles” even spherical? And although it might be impossible, as a thought experiment think of a creature that exists in superspace and is on the surface of a planck bubble, how would that creature experience time? Or would it only experience supertime?
    The more satisfying our answers become the more bizarre our new questions must be.
    Alas, I am only a layman.

    • تاد رابرتز می گوید:

      We treat the bubble as spherical in a time-averaged sense. Nevertheless, the shape of their boundaries are not defined in x, y, z space at all. Instead, they are defined in superspace. And in superspace, yes, the ratio of their circumference to diameter would be π. The hypothetical creature you speak of would not experience time at all, because such a creature would not be made up of space. Instead she would be made up of superspace, and would experience supertime. Chapter 11 of the book goes into more detail on this. Sending it to you now.

  23. Frank says:

    Hi, thank you for this video. I appreciate how 11D can be visualized in the mind, but it was helpful seeing the drawings as well.
    What is left after the smallest unit of space is divided? If it's no longer space or a planck bit, what is it called?
    Would it no longer be located within the 11 dimensions?
    Are there infinite dimensions?
    May I have a copy of your book?

    • تاد رابرتز می گوید:

      البته. I just emailed you a copy of the book. I think you'll find the figures in the book quite helpful. When we talk about less than a Planck length of space, we are not talking about space. Instead, we are referencing intraspatial information. The name is not as important as the properties. In this model, the vacuum is made up of quanta, the quanta are similarly made up of sub-quanta, and those are made up of sub-sub-quanta, and so on. The fractal structure of the model guarantees that the relationships between each of these levels of construction are self-similiar. It is this fact that gives us direct access to the complete picture. The total number of dimensions in the map depends upon your resolution level. The equation is # of dimensions = 3^n + n, where n is your oder of perspective. Treating the vacuum as a continuum is a first order perspective. Quantizing the vacuum is a second order perspective. Quantizing the quanta is a third order perspective and so on. So if you wish to map Nature with infinite resolution, then yes, according to this construction there are infinite dimensions. But a second order resolution can get you a full explanation of the dynamics observed in quantum mechanics and general relativity. The cause of the Big Bang, however, requires at least a third order perspective to resolve. Chapter 11 should make this more clear.

  24. praroop joshi says:

    hey thad…i am a student but i am really interested in these kind of theory , but i have a minute question
    can gravity travel in different dimension ?
    just like they say in BRANES of string theory.
    and is this the reason that the gravity is the weakest among all the fundamental forces?
    and one more thing if we were to live in different dimensions rather that X,Y,Z, what will it consist i mean can time be an spatial co-ordinate?
    wait for your reply.

    • تاد رابرتز می گوید:

      Your question brings us to what is known as the hierarchy problem. Let me respond with an excerpt from Chapter 19 in my book that addresses this topic:

      Despite the fact that particle physicists have devoted decades of intense research to solving the hierarchy problem, the question of how the feebleness of gravity interlocks with the rest of the picture remains a mystery. The standard model of particle physics makes it easy to treat all forces as the result of an interchange of force particles. With regard to the electromagnetic, weak, and strong nuclear forces, all of our experiments have shown an absolutely stunning alignment with this theoretical depiction. This alignment becomes the supporting foundation for an underlying symmetry in Nature because it links the strengths of these forces into a relatively tight range and unifies the source of their origination and the proposed mechanics responsible for them.

      All of this is aesthetically beautiful and pleasing, except for the fact that we have a rather serious upset when we attempt to compute the strength of gravity through the same model. Paradoxically, when we treat gravity like we treat the other forces—as a similar exchange of some kind of force particle—we find that the standard model clusters gravity's expected strength in range with the other known forces. It predicts that the symmetry underlying the other forces should also belong to gravity and it spits out a value for the strength of gravity that is astronomically different from what we observe it to be.

      Comparing gravity's actual strength to the standard model's theoretical prediction of its strength, we end up with a discrepancy that spans sixteen orders of magnitude. This is a serious problem. Such an enormous misalignment suggests that the standard model of particle physics is still missing something big.

      Both of these attempts are trying to treat gravity as though it were fundamentally the same as the other known forces, despite the fact that in the physical world gravity manifests itself as characteristically different. The motivation behind this comes from the desire to uncover deeper symmetries hidden in Nature and to use those symmetries to enhance our grasp of the natural realm. But what if there is a simpler way to unite the four forces? What if they are connected by a different kind of symmetry?

      The assumption that the vacuum is a superfluid could be the key to unification. If every force corresponds to a way in which the natural geometry differs from Euclidean geometry, then gravity can be understood to be unique among those differences because it is the only one that comes into focus macroscopically. That is, gravity is specifically offset from the other three forces because it arises as a small-amplitude collective excitation mode of the non-relativistic background condensate. In other words, it represents how the density of the vacuum slowly changes from one region to another, which necessitates a smooth representation that is only accurate in the low-energy, low-momentum regime.

      To understand why an accurate description of gravity is restricted to the low-energy, low- momentum regime, it is useful to be aware of the fact that fluid mechanics is an emergent consequent of molecular dynamics (within its low-energy, low-momentum limit). In other words, fluid mechanics is not a fundamental descriptor of any of the systems we apply it to. Those systems are actually driven by an underlying microphysics. Fluid mechanics exists only as an emergent approximation of the low-energy and low-momentum regime of the molecular dynamics that drive the system's evolution.

      Likewise, a velocity field (a vector field) and a derivative density field (a scalar field), which the Euler and continuity equations critically depend upon, do not exist on the microscopic level. They are emergent properties that are only resolved on scales larger than the mean free path and the mean free time.

      If the vacuum is a superfluid, whose metric is macroscopically describable by a state vector (a velocity vector field), then the density gradient of that fluid is an emergent approximation of the system instead of a fundamental descriptor. The cohesion of that approximation requires macroscopic scales, and molecular dynamics that are defined within the low-energy, low-momentum regime. Gravity becomes an expectation because, if the vacuum is a superfluid, if it can be modeled as an acoustic metric, then small fluctuations in that superfluid will obey Lorentz symmetry even though the superfluid itself is non- relativistic.

      The assumption of vacuum superfluidity fully reproduces expectations of compressibility (the ability for the metric to curve or warp), while projecting an internal velocity restriction. It also sets up an expectation of acoustic horizons, which turn out to be analogous to event horizons with the notable difference that they allow for certain physical effects to propagate back across the horizon, which might be analogous to, or responsible for, Hawking radiation. Therefore, if the vacuum is a superfluid, then gravity can be viewed as a macroscopic emergent expression, a collective property of the vacuum that supports long-range deformations in the density field. This small-amplitude characteristic is responsible for the feebleness of gravity.

      The strength of a force reflects the degree to which the geometric properties that author it contrast from Euclidean projections. Gravity is the weakest force because it only comes into focus on macroscopic scales, and therefore only slightly deviates from Euclidean expectations. The strong nuclear force, electromagnetism, and the weak nuclear force, are much stronger because they are all authored by geometric characteristics that deviate from Euclidean projections on even microscopic scales.

      Another way to put this is to say that metric distortions that qualify as gravity fields are inherently incapable of directly accessing the degrees of freedom that belong to the underlying molecular dynamics that drive the system. The metric distortion that leads to gravitational phenomena is capable of existing statically—the density gradient it represents is blind to the molecular dynamics that give rise to it—while the strong force, electromagnetism, and the weak force, are strictly sustained dynamically—they explicitly reference the underlying molecular dynamics. The magnitude of gravity (the degree to which this geometric distortion differs from the static Euclidean space) is, therefore, comparatively diluted. This is a consequence of the average-over process that gives rise to its geometry.

      Therefore, in as much as we consider underlying molecular dynamics to be an explanation of fluid mechanics (on low-energy and low-momentum scales), the assumption that the vacuum is a superfluid comes with a natural explanation for why gravity is so feeble compared to the other forces.

      I'll send you the book via email and look forward to further questions/comments.

  25. Lib says:

    I am completely untrained in science and math however I have been reading layman articles and listening to talks for many years. I just want to say i felt great appreciation for Thad and Co for their labors. The field of human intelligence is, I think, one field to which we all contribute. It is outside of time, though the process of human thought appears linear. I am somewhere in the renaissance, I can understand that the world is not flat and that the earth goes around the sun , despite the evidence of my eyes, and as I grasp the complexities of science and the new physics at an incredibly basic level, groping in darkness, I feel such kindness from the mind in this site, and such gratitude to it. How patient with others ! Quite exemplary of the self-organizing, cooperative intelligence at work.(I see it as the evolutionary life-force, once thought of as a Being outside the system). Thanks for helping the field along.

    • تاد رابرتز می گوید:

      سلام الیزابت،
      با تشکر از شما برای حمایت شما. We are trying to bring science back into the hands of those that have the courage to honestly ask questions, and to free it from the political pressures that have been strangling its potential. In science, it is never appropriate to justify a truth claim based on it being the claim of some “authority”. The logic should speak for itself. More importantly, we are individually responsible for our own participation in the quest for knowledge and wisdom. As you know, we can never be completely confident that the model we have of Nature is correct, what we can do is evaluate how honestly we have challenged every assumption, and rigorously test against all possible options. Our work is meant to be a guide in that process. It follows the thread of a particular model, one that offer immense ontological clarity, but its true aim is to empower each individual with the skills necessary to push our intellectual boundaries. It asks the questions that challenge our very foundations, and it offers insight into how we might rebuild that foundation. Anyone who reads this book will gain the ability to become a powerful part of the conversation.

  26. جیم می گوید:

    The flickering (or vibration) of particles of space and the averaging out on the large scale, feels kind of like the illusions of movie projectors – a consistent image appears to the eye, but if you inspect it more closely you realize there's far more to the story.

    The one thing that confused me about the model, was the idea of distance being the number of space particles. If that were so, it would seem that our three-dimensions are hoisted on top of the dimension of space-time, or, perhaps, are dependent on – an outgrowth of – space-time.

    • تاد رابرتز می گوید:

      The idea is that the vacuum is itself a fluid, this measures of space measure amounts of that fluid between positions. I'm not sure what you meant by, “dependent on – an outgrowth of – spacetime.”

  27. Gururaj Bhat says:

    سلام،
    I'm a lay person but found your work very interesting. Can you please send a copy of your book?
    با تشکر
    Gururaj

  28. ساحل می گوید:

    hey I am a student of physics and would love to read your book. آیا می توانید لطفا به من یک نسخه PDF ارسال

  29. stewart says:

    Thad, will you send me a copy of your book?

    با تشکر
    stewart

    • تاد رابرتز می گوید:

      این کتاب در حال حاضر از طریق لولو .COM (گالینگور پر رنگ)، .COM آمازون (رنگ وزیری کامل)، یا از طریق iTunes (از Ibook) در دسترس است. شما لینک به هر اینجا پیدا کنید.

      از http: // WWW .ein steinsin توو ition .COM

      If you'd like a signed copy please let me know. If you cannot afford the $14.99 at this time (for the iBook) send me another message and let me know.

  30. Gene says:

    Hi – thanks for your work. I am a mathematician, and have done some work in higher dimensional geometry, but have little training in physics, and am not a scientist. I have a few questions.

    It seems you are proposing that the quanta are arranged within 3-dimensional space, and that the other 6 dimensions are somehow “within” the three (what I think you call superspace). Is that correct?

    If quanta 1 and 2 are separated by one plankton, and quanta 2 and three are separated by one plankton in a different dimension perpendicular to the first, would the distance between quanta 1 and 3 also be one plankton? In Euclidean geometry it would be the square root of 2. Am I totally off here?

    I assume that your model rejects the theory that the extra 6 dimensions are “curled up” in tiny amounts of curved dimensions around each quanta?

    Forgive me if these questions do not make sense. I appreciate your work and am looking to understand more. با تشکر.

    • تاد رابرتز می گوید:

      Hi Gene,
      That's partially correct. The quanta of space collectively form the x, y, z vacuum of space that we are familiar with. This means that the arrangements of all the quanta at one instant defines the state of space for that instant, but that connectivity is not static. It evolves according to the wave equation as the quanta mix about. In your specific example, if quanta A and B are separated by one Planck length, then that means that one quantum of space lies between them. If B and C are perpendicularly arranged from A and B, and were also one quantum apart then they also only have one quantum between them. This is not a static condition. At some instances the state of space might find A and B two quanta apart, while others might find them with now quanta of space between them. At any rate, the number of quanta (the amount of space) between A and C would be a whole number (0, 1, 2, 3…) at any particular instant, but would average out to have a value equal to the square root of 2. Does that make sense? So, yes, at any particular moment the spatial separation between A and C might be one quantum of space, and an no point in time would it be the square root of 2, yet the average separation would eventually become the square root of 2.

      If you're interested in getting the book, it is now available via Lulu​.com (hardcover full color), Amazon​.com (softcover full color), or through iTunes (iBook). شما لینک به هر اینجا پیدا کنید.

      از http: // WWW .ein steinsin توو ition .COM

      If you'd like a signed copy please let me know. If you cannot afford the $14.99 at this time (for the iBook) send me another message and let me know.

      • Gene says:

        I have problems with the idea of quanta “mixing about” over time. It implies that each quanta is identifiable, and moves from location to location albeit in a “jumpy” fashion. But quanta are the definition of location, from what I understand. Does not “mixing about” imply another frame of reference to “locate” each quanta within 3D space?

        • تاد رابرتز می گوید:

          Yes, absolutely. The quanta are positioned in configuration space, otherwise called superspace. The collection of these quanta fill out the dimensions of x, y, z or familiar space. When there are more than 3 spatial dimensions “location” become a more complex concept.

  31. Artax says:

    سلام تاد،
    I'm very happy because i discover you, i'd always thought “the problem is geometrical”, and so is the solution!
    I would be very grateful if you would send me your book,hopefully I will return the favor in the near future :)
    متشکرم
    Bye

    • تاد رابرتز می گوید:

      شما می توانید سفارش از Ibook، وزیری و یا گالینگور از طریق این سایت. If you cannot afford either of these options let me know and I can send you a promo code for a free iBook.

  32. ez Rico says:

    Re: Nunya Bizness … You may be very smart but what comes across is that you are surely full of yourself!! Being crude and rude in your commentary is so much like Donald T Rump. … Thad is too nice a person to call you on your poor communication skills.

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